Lead levels in human placentae and foetal health.

by Ashok Kumar Khera

Publisher: University of Aston. Department of Pharmacy in Birmingham

Written in English
Published: Downloads: 482
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Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of Aston in Birmingham 1981.

Structure. The fetal membranes surround the developing embryo and form the fetal-maternal interface. The fetal membranes are derived from the outer trophoblast layer of the implanting blastocyst. The trophoblast layer differentiates into amnion and the chorion, which then comprise the fetal membranes. The amnion is the innermost layer and, therefore, contacts the amniotic fluid, the fetus and.   Human placental lactogen is a hormone that doctors sometimes test to check on the placenta as well as the growth of a fetus during pregnancy. We’ll go over what it . To examine the roles of the placental and pituitary hormones in the control of maternal metabolism and fetal growth. In addition to promoting growth of maternal tissues, placental growth hormone. Maternal health and the placental microbiome. Placenta, 54, •Rubin, R. (). Unraveling the Mysteries of the Human Placenta. Jama, (24), •Sakamoto, Mineshi, et al. "Changes in body burden of mercury, lead, arsenic, cadmium and selenium in infants during early lactation in comparison with placental transfer.".

This can help the assessment of fetal growth (e.g, estimating fetal weight [19]) and diagnosis of placental abnormality (e.g, bilobed placenta and succenturiate lobed placenta [58]). Health Problems Caused by Lead. It does not matter if a person breathes-in, swallows, or absorbs lead particles, the health effects are the same; however, the body absorbs higher levels of lead when it is breathed-in. Within our bodies, lead is absorbed and stored in our bones, blood, and tissues. The placenta (Greek, plakuos = flat cake) named on the basis of this organs gross anatomical appearance. The placenta a mateno-fetal organ which begins developing at implantation of the blastocyst and is delivered with the fetus at birth. During that 9 month period it provides nutrition, gas exchange, waste removal, a source of hematopoietic stem cells, endocrine and immune support for . Implantation is one of the crucial periods in human reproduction. Increasing body of evidence suggests that the improper (dysfunctional) implantation and the formation of the placenta can endanger life and health of both the fetus and the mother, during prenatal life and decades after delivery. The idea of the inverted pyramid of prenatal care has emerged in the recent years, as the early.

1. The human placenta creates an ARTERIO-VENOUS SHUNT (A/V) in the maternal circulation. During the last trimester of normal pregnancy, 50 to 60 jets of arterial maternal blood spurt up against the fetal cotyledons with each maternal cardiac systole. The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids.

Lead levels in human placentae and foetal health. by Ashok Kumar Khera Download PDF EPUB FB2

Placental lead levels were studied in a series of Birmingham births classified by stillbirth, neonatal death, or survival beyond one week. There was an appreciable range of lead levels even in normal births ( microgram/g) but nevertheless average results showed a pronounced excess of lead in those who failed to survive both birth and the neonatal by: The geometric mean lead concentration in the membranes from late fetal deaths was micrograms/g of dry tissue (95% confidence limits ), which was times higher than the mean found in normal births ( micrograms/g, 95% confidence limits ).Cited by: Lead levels in human placenta and foetal health.

(Thesis) Khera AK. Publisher: University of Aston in Birmingham [] Metadata Source: The British Library Type: Thesis. Abstract. No abstract supplied. Menu. Formats. Abstract. EThOS. About. About Europe PMC; Funders; Joining Europe PMC Author: Ashok K. Khera. The placenta is a temporary organ that connects the developing fetus via the umbilical cord to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.

Placentas are a defining characteristic of placental mammals, but are also found in. Lead levels in human placentae and foetal health Author: Khera, Ashok K.

ISNI: Awarding Body: University of Aston in Birmingham Current Institution: Aston University Date of Award: Availability of Full Text: Access from EThOS: Author: Ashok K.

Khera. Esteban-Vasallo MD, Aragonés N, Pollan M, López-Abente G, Perez-Gomez B. Mercury, cadmium and lead levels in human placenta: a systematic review.

Environ Health Perspect. ; – [PMC free article] Gundacker C, Hengstschläger M. The role of the placenta in fetal exposure to heavy metals. Wien Med Wochenschr. ; – Sorry, our data provider has not provided any external links therefore we are unable to provide a link to the full : Ashok K.

Khera. Esteban-Vasallo MD, Aragonés N, Pollan M, López-Abente G, Perez-Gomez B. Mercury, cadmium and lead levels in human placenta: a systematic review.

Environ Health Perspect. ; – [PMC free article] Grant C, Lalor G, Fletcher H, Potter T, Vutchkov M, Reid M. Elements in human placentae in Jamaica. 1. Introduction. E-waste contains rare and precious metals, whose toxicity has the potential to impact human health and ecosystems (Grant et al.,Robinson, ).Being bioaccumulative and persistent, heavy metals and other toxic materials released in the air, water and soil by disordered e-waste processing can be transmitted and expose to individuals, with a typical concern of lead.

The heavy metals mercury, lead, and cadmium are toxicants, which are well-known to cross the placenta and to accumulate in fetal tissues. Prenatal exposure to mercury and lead poses a health. Lead represents a highly prevalent metal toxicant with potential to alter human biology in lasting ways.

A population segment that is particularly vulnerable to the negative consequences of lead exposure is the human fetus, as exposure events occurring before birth are linked to varied and long-ranging negative health and behavioral outcomes.

MRNA levels of angiotensinogen (AGT) tended to be higher in FGR placentae compared with control (P=). Expression of prorenin, AGT, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) or ACE2 proteins were similar in control and FGR placentae.

The renin-AGT reaction is a first order reaction so levels of expression of placental AGT determine levels of Ang II. Low birth weight (LBW) is defined by the World Health Organization as a birth weight of an infant of 2, g (5 lb oz) or less, regardless of gestational age.

Infants born with LBW have added health risks which require close management, often in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). They are also at increased risk for long-term health conditions which require follow-up over time.

Prenatal exposure to mercury and lead poses a health threat particularly to the developing brain. and Web of Science for original papers on total Hg, Cd, or Pb levels in human placenta that. Maternal IGF-1 levels have been found to correlate with fetal growth.

Increased levels of free IGF-1 are found during normal human pregnancy. The placenta has multiple functions, including the transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste and the production of hormones.

It consumes oxygen and glucose brought by the uterine circulation. ICP-MS measurement of total Ti content in the human term placenta and the meconium, and particle analysis by STEM-EDX. As shown in Table 2, Ti was found in all placental samples (n = 22), with the total Ti content ranging from to mg/kg of tissue.

Seven women displayed a total placental Ti content above mg/kg of tissue, with 2 of them reaching – mg/kg of tissue. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Atlanta, GA. lead kinetics across the placenta and in but is inconclusive, that fetal lead exposure at levels found in the United States results in low birth weight or adverse health conditions in adults who were exposed to lead.

However, among the authors who relate intrauterine exposure to lead and delays in fetal growth, Osman et al. () observed a negative correlation between the levels of lead in the umbilical cord and the weight, length and thorax perimeter at birth, but not with the levels of lead in the placenta.

It should be pointed out that in this last study the levels of lead in question were very low, ranging from. Fetal development and offspring health throughout the lifespan may be impacted by placental responses (93– 95).

Although all systems are likely impacted by the placenta, in this section, we will consider how cardiovascular and neural disorders may trace their origins back to dysfunction within this organ, as these 2 are currently the best.

Fetal T4 levels rise under the influence of TSH as well as increasing levels of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), which is made by the liver. Mean total T4 levels are approximately 2 mcg/dL at 12 weeks and 10 mcg/dL at 40 weeks, while free T4 levels increase from ng/dL at 12 weeks to 2 ng/dL at 40 weeks [.

In a placenta, black carbon can cause inflammation that can lead to or exacerbate other health issues. The scientists found that the more pollution the mothers were exposed to. Placenta (), 17, Placental Effects of Lead in Mice M. Fuentes, A. Torregrosaa, R. Mora, V. G6tzensa, J. Corbellla and J.

Domingob, Department of Public Health and Policy, and a Department of Morphological Sciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain b Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 'Rovira i Virgili' University, Reus, Spain Paper.

Human Chorionic Somammotropin (hCS) or Placental Lactogen Biological effects are reverse of those of insulin: utilization of lipids; make glucose more readily available to fetus, and for milk production.

hCS levels proportionate to placental size hCS levels placental insuffiency PLACENTAL STEROID HORMONE The placenta also releases several protein hormones, which include human chorionic gonadotrophin, human placental lactogen, placental growth hormone, relaxin and kisspeptin.

Human chorionic gonadotrophin is the first hormone to be released from the developing placenta and is the hormone that is measured in a pregnancy test. The CORT levels were also increased in the placentae of the Cd group (Fig. 2 B, E). Analysis of the relationships between foetal and maternal CORT levels with the body weights of the individual foetuses indicated strong negative correlations between the factors respectively (Fig.

2 C, F, 2 H). Download: Download high-res image (KB). Correlations of fetal weight and placental efficiency with either placental hsFLT1 transcript level (A) or fetal hsFLT1 transcript level (B,C) in the hsFLT1/rtTA mouse model. (A) Reduction in fetal body weight was negatively correlated with fetal expression of human soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (hsFLT1) (r = −; p = ).

Transfer of (14)C-phenylalanine across the isolated perfused human placenta was determined at different maternal and fetal flow rates. Maternal flow rate was set. It's a known fact that babies in the womb can be affected by low levels of lead exposure. If a pregnant woman is exposed to lead, the lead passes through the placenta into the baby's developing.

Highlights Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most commonly detected mycotoxin contaminant of cereal crops and cereal based food products. DON causes adverse health effects in animals, passes through to the foetus and causes foetal abnormalities in animals. DON cross BeWo b30 monolayer barrier and human placenta barrier.

During pregnancy, placenta cannot prevent transfer lead to the fetus; even low-level lead poisoning causes neurodevelopmental toxicity in children. The aim of this study was to determine the association more» between the maternal HFE H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels in placental tissue, maternal blood and umbilical cord bloods.

HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) is often called the pregnancy hormone because it is made by cells formed in the placenta, which nourishes the egg after it has been fertilized and becomes attached to the uterine wall. Levels can first be detected by a blood test about 11 days after conception and about days after conception by a urine test.

A detailed discussion of normal placental development and physiology is beyond the scope of this chapter and is discussed in other chapters. Instead, this chapter will focus on an overview of congenital placental abnormalities and the obstetrical complications that can arise.

The goal of this chapter is to delineate the real-world implications of placental abnormalities and provide the reader.Human placental lactogen (hPL) As hCG levels fall there is an increased secretion of hPL.

hPL increases in parallel with the size of the placenta and correlates well with fetal and placental weight. It has properties similar to growth hormone and prolactin, being lactogenic and stimulating growth of maternal and fetal tissues.